Sunday, May 16, 2010

Phrenology - Franz Joseph Gall and Johann Gaspar Spurzheim



Johann Christoph Spurzheim was born in Longuich near Trier, Germany in 1776 although trained for a clerical career he began working with Franz Josef Gall (who was born in Baden, in the village of Tiefenbronn in 1758) on neuroanatomical research after meeting him and listening to his lectures in Vienna, Austria in 1800.

In 1813 Spurzheim separated from Gall and in 1815 published his first major work, The Physiognomical System of Drs. Gall and Spurzheim Founded on an Anatomical and Physiological Examination of the Nervous System in General and of the Brain in Particular; and Indicating the Dispositions and Manifestations of the Mind.

A copy is for sale on Ebay Click here to see it for sale on Ebay.

Phrenology is completely discredited but for me the real value of the books is the expressive illustrations which seek to prove the point.



Biography of Spurzheim.

Link to the library at Cambridge University titled Physiognomy and Phrenology: weird science?

Mark Twain on Phrenology from Neurosurgery.


Here is a link to an exhibit at Northwestern University of George Cruikshank's satirical treatment of phrenology. The first illustration is from Spurzheim the second Cruikshank comparing two different types. A review of the book from the London Literary Gazette.
NEW PUBLICATIONS. Phrenological Illustrations, or an Artist's View of the Craniological System of Doctors Gall and Spurzheim. By George Cruikshank. When a clever man hits upon a clever idea, he is very likely to produce a clever work. And, as Mr. George Cruikshank is an exceedingly clever man, and phrenology a subject admirably suited for the exercise of humourous talent,—it is not surprising that we should have in these Illustrations one of the happiest and most amusing performances of the times. To predict that it must be very popular, is to express an opinion that people have eyes to see, and sense to relish, a series of graphic jokes, comically conceived in their whole spirit, and drolly executed in their every detail.
Phrenological Illustrations by George Cruikshank at Amazon.com.

Another page about ridiculing phrenology.

Phrenology, in connexion with the study of physiognomy: Part I: Characters By Johann Gaspar Spurzheim at Google Books.

Reflections on Gall and Spurzheim's system of physiognomy and phrenology - at Google Books.

Phrenology, in Connection with the Study of Physiognomy: Illustration of Characters with Thirty-Five Plates By Johann Gaspar Spurzheim, Nahum Capen at Google Books.

Observations on the deranged manifestations of the mind, or, insanity By Johann Gaspar Spurzheim, Amariah Brigham at Google Books.

The Physiognomical System of Drs. Gall and Spurzheim Founded on an Anatomical and Physiological Examination of the Nervous System in General and of the Brain in Particular; and Indicating the Dispositions and Manifestations of the Mind at Google Books.

Books at Amazon.com

How to Read Character: Hand-Book of Physiology, Phrenology and Physiognomy, Illustrated With a Descriptive Chart (Classic Reprint)

A Measure of Perfection: Phrenology and the Fine Arts in America (Cultural Studies of the United States)

The illustrated self instructor in phrenology and physiology; with one hundred engravings, and a chart of the character ... By O. S. and L. N. Fowler.

How To Read Character - A New Illustrated Hand-Book Of Phrenology And Physiognomy For Students And Examiners With A Descriptive Chart

Head Masters: Phrenology, Secular Education, and Nineteenth-Century Social Thought Some Account of Dr. Gall's New Theory of Physiognomy: Founded Upon the Anatomy and Physiology of the Brain, and the Form of the Skull
Head Masters: Phrenology, Secular Education, and Nineteenth-Century Social Thought

Some Account of Dr. Gall's New Theory of Physiognomy: Founded Upon the Anatomy and Physiology of the Brain, and the Form of the Skull

On the Functions of the Brain and of Each of Its Parts: On the Origin of the Moral Qualities and Intellectual Faculties of Man, and the Conditions of Their Manifestation

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