Saturday, October 25, 2008

Antique Statuary from the Gallery of Florence

Before figure drawing students began drawing from models they drew from copies of antique statuary. These copperplate prints are from a book published in four volumes between 1789 and 1804 which cataloged the art work in the Gallery of Florence.
The book is called Tableaux, statues, bas-reliefs et camées de la galerie de Florence et du palais Pitti. by Jean-Baptiste Joseph Wicar; Louis Joseph Masquelier; Claude Louis Masquelier; Antoinne Mongez. It was listed by Abebooks as one of the ten most expensive books sold in 2007.

You can search for a copy yourself at Use the search terms "Tableaux, statues, bas-reliefs de la galerie de Florence".

Occassionally individual prints show up on Ebay.
Three volumes of the original four sold at auction for $17.00 here is a description from American Book Prices Current, a record of books etc. sold at auction in New York, Boston and Philadelphia in 1917. "GALERIE. Galerie de Florence. Tableaux, Statues, Bas- reliefs et Camées, de la Galerie de Florence et du Palais Pitti. Dessinés par Wicar. avec les explications par Mongrez. Paris, 1789-1804. 4 vols., fol. Hf. cf., une. (in 3 vols., a few plates stained), Hirsch, A.,Oct. 19, '16. (223) $17.00."

An unillustrated Catalogue de la R. Galerie de Florence in which you can find descriptions of these works is at Google Books.
A reprint of a similar catalog, or perhaps a later edition of the same catalog is available at Galerie Impériale et Royale de Florence.

For more about the proportions of the human body as revealed by a study of antique statuary see my ebook The Sculptor and Art Student's Guide to the Proportions of the Human Form or the same book as a printed book The Art Student's Guide to the Proportions of the Human Form.

Here is an example of an artist drawing from published sources contrasted with drawing from life. The drawing pictured is a copy of Plate II. from The Art Student's Guide to The Proportions of the Human Form. Next to it is a detail of Plate II from the book that he used to draw from, the details are line drawings showing the proportions demonstrated by the antique statues of Niobe's Daughter, the Venus de Medici, and Faustina.

The website where his work appears is: The Art of Carl von Marr: Self-Discipline and Nuance.

For a description of the transition from drawing from casts and printed examples to drawing from life you can check out my ebook: How to Draw the Human Figure - The Figure Drawings of Grace A. Young as an ebook, or How to Draw the Human Figure as a printed book.

Or other histories of drawing in Philadelphia:

Another book that encompasses a complete couse of learning to draw and is largely about drawing from the cast is Charles Bargue et Jean-Leon Gerome. Cours de dessin. Here is an interesting review of the book: Charles Bargue Drawing Course.
Another link: Patricia's Palette Charles Bargue: Learn to draw, learn to see.
Another link from a blogger who is drawing from the book: The Devil's Red Rose.

Friday, October 24, 2008

The Human Skeleton

These plates are from a book published by the Bibliographisches Institut Leipzig in 1895. The book was a reference encyclopedia titled Meyers Grosses Konversations-Lexikon.

The company was founded in 1926 by Joseph Meyer. The first edition of Meyers Konversations-Lexikon came out in 1839.

Here is a Wikipedia page about the company. And here is one about the encylopedia. The encyclopedia was one of the first to include extensive illustrations. It was not until 1955 that all 52 volumes were printed.

Link to another post showing human proportions from the encyclopedia.

Wednesday, October 22, 2008

The Human Skeleton and Muscles - Johann Georg Heck

Another engraving from the Iconographic Encyclopaedia of Science, Literature, and Art By Johann Georg Heck. The German title is Bilder Atlas zum Conversations-Lexikon Ikonographische Encyclopadie der Wissenschaften und Kunste

This one is the human skeleton from the front view, side view and back view. It was engraved by Henry Winkles. He was an architectural painter and steel engraver in the early nineteenth century.

Here are some notes on the print: The average human skeleton is comprised of 206 bones of varying shapes and sizes. Although all bones provide the body with structure and support, differently shaped bones fufill different roles. The long bones of the arms and legs, such as the humerus or the femur, raise and lower like levers. Flat bones, such as those of the skull, protect the soft tissues they enclose. (The smaller skeletons in the corners are of those of a fetus).
The second image is a study of muscles from the front an back views.

Here is the key:
Fig. 1-2. Anterior ligament, 1-3. Interarticular ligament, 2-3. Posterior ligament, 2-3. Middle costo-transverse ligament, 2-4. Internal costo-transverse ligament, 4-5, 5-3. Iliolumbar ligament, 4-3, 5-2. Posterior sacro-coccygean ligament, 4-6. anterior sacro-iliac ligament, 5-5. Posterior, 5-6. Great sacro-sciatic ligament, 7. Symphisis pubis, 8,9. Sterno-clavicular articulation, 9-2. Inter-clavicular ligament, 9-5. Rhomboid ligament, 10-1. Acromio-clavicular ligament, 10-2. Conoid, 10-3. Trapezoid, 15-1. Internal lateral ligament, 16-1,2. Interosseous ligament, 19-1. (Muscle) Temporalis, 19-2. Levator palpebrae, 19-3. Zygomaticus, 19-4. Orbicularis, 19-5. Levator anguli oris, 19-6. Masseter, 19-7. Sterno cleido-mastoid, 19-8. Subclavius, 19-9. Pectoralis minor, 19-10. Dentations of the serratus magnus, 19-11. Linea alba, 19-12. Rectus abdominus, 19-13. Transversus abdominis, 19-15. Biceps, 20-1. Temporal muscle, 20-2. Splenius, 20-3. Levator scapulae, 20-4. Rhomboideus, 20-5. Serratus posticus superior, 20-6. Supra spinatus, 20-7. Infra spinatus, 20-8. Teres minor, 20-9. Serratus posticus inferior, 20-10. Quadratus lumborum, 20-16. Triceps extensor cubiti, 20-17. Brachialis internus, 20-18. Anconaeus, 20-19. Extensor, 20-20. Flexor, 20-22. Indicator, 20-22. Abductor.

He traveled to Australia in 1852 and made a number of sketches of miner's camps. They are on the web here.

Johann Georg Heck was an author of encyclopedic reference books during the same time. See my other post: Human Anatomy for Artists and Drawing Proportions of the Human Body.

The engravings of the skull are also by Henry Winkles.

The Anatomical Atlas by Henry H. Smith, M.D. also published in the mid-eighteenth century also has some skeleton references.

Another Engraving published by Johann Georg Heck, The Muscles of the Head.

Click here to see the print for sale on Ebay.
Fig. 1, superficial muscles of the head from the left side: 1, epicranial aponeurosis; 2,3, occipito-frontalis, anterior portion; 4, posterior portion, the two connected by the epicranial aponeurosis ; 5, attollens aurem; 6, retrahens aurem ; 7, attrahens aurem ; 8, orbicularis palpebrarum; 9, compressor naris; 10, levator labii superioris alaeque nasi ; 11, levator labii superioris; 12, zygomaticus minor; 13, zygomaticus major; 14, levator anguli oris; 15, depressor anguli oris; 16, depressor labii inferioris; 17, levator menti ; 18, orbicularis oris ; 19, buccinator ; 20, masseter. Fig. 2, deep-seated muscles of the head from the left side: 1, temporal muscle; 2, corrugator supercilii; 3, superior oblique muscle of the eye; 4, levator palpebrae; 5, compressor naris ; 6, depressor naris ; 7, orbicularis ; 8, levator anguli oris ; 9, depressor labii inferioris; 10, buccinator. Fig. 3.1, platysma myoides; 2, musculus risorius santorini, 3, sterno-celido-mastoid; 4, trapezius; Fig. 4.1,2, digastric muscle; Fig. 9. 1, pectoralis major; 2, pectoralis minor; 3, subclavius; 4, serratus magnus; 5, intercostals; Fig. 10.1,2,3, obliquus internus; Fig. 11.1, muscular portion of the diaphragm; Fig. 12.1, supra spinatus; 2, infra spinatus; 3, teres minor; 4, teres major; Fig. 13.1, subscapularis, 2, biceps; Fig. 14.1, tendon of the triceps; 2, brachialis internus; Fig. 15.1, deltoid; 2, common tendon of the triceps; 3,4,5, the long, the external and the internal portions; 6, anconaeus;

Anatomy of the Muscles

Click here to see the print for sale on Ebay.
Fig. 1-1, serratus posticus superior; 1-2. serratus posticus inferior ; 1-3. orsal aponeurosis; 1-4. splenius capitis; 1-5,6. sacro-spinalis; 1-7. cervicalis ascendens ; 1-8. trachelo-mastoid ; 1-9. semi-spinalis dorsi et colli ; 1-10. complexus; 1-11. spinalis dorsi et colli. 2-1. splenius capitis; 2-2. splenius colli; 2-3,5. complexus; 2-4., trachelo mastoid. 3-1. complexus; 3-2. trachelo-mastoid; 3-3. minor, 3-4. major rectus capitis posticus; 3-5. obliquus capitis, inferior and superior. Fig. 4-1. pronator teres; 4-2. flexor carpi radialis; 4-3. palmaris longus; 4-4. flexor carpi ulnaris; 4-5. supinator longus; 4-6. flexor digitorum communis. Fig. 5-1. flexor digitorum communis sublimis; 5-2. slit for the passage of the flexor profundus; 5-3. supinator longus: 5-4. lower part of the brachialis internus; 5-5. tendon of the biceps; 5-6. palmar ligament. Fig. 6-1. flexor communis digitorum profundus; 6-2,3. flexor pollicis longus; 6-4. pronator quadratus; 6-5,6. supinator longus et brevis. Fig. 7-1. extensor digitorum communis; 7-2. extensor digiti minimi; 7-3. extensor carpi ulnaris; 7-4. anconoeus; 7-5. extensor carpi radialis longus et brevis; 7-6. annular ligament. Fig. 8-1. supinator brevis; 8-2. anconoeus reflected; 8-3. abductor longus pollicis ; 8-4. extensor pollicis brevis ; 8-5. extensor pollicis longus; 8-6. extensor indicis. Fig. 9-1. tendon of the extensor pollicis longus; 9-2. tendon of the palmaris longus; 9-3. tendon of the flexor carpi ulnaris; 9-4. abductor pollicis brevis; 9-5. opponens pollicis; 9-6. flexor pollicis brevis ; 9-7. abductor pollicis; 9-8. palmaris brevis; 9-9. abductor digiti minimi; 9-10. flexor brevis digiti minimi ; 9-11. opponens digiti minimi; 9-12. internal interosseous muscle.

Fig. 10-1,2,3. external interosseons muscles. 11-1. glutaeus maximus; 11-2. glutaeus meclius. Fig. 12-1. glutaeus medius; 12-2. pyriformis; 12-3. tendon of the obturator internus; 12-4. quadratus femoris; 12-5. section of the tendon of the glutaeus maximus. Fig. 13-1. section of the pyriformis; 13-2. glutaeus minimus; 13-3. obturator mternus; 13-4. quadratus femoris; 13-5. adductor femoris; 13-6. biceps flexor cruris; 13-7. semi-tendinosus; 13-8. semi-membranosus. Fig. 14-1. psoas magnus, 14-2. iliacus internus (both in section); 14-3. sartorius; 14-4. tensor vaginae femoris; 14-5. rectus ; 14-6. vastus extern us ; 14-7. pectinaeus ; 14-8. adductor longus; 14-9. gracilis. Fig. 15-1. the four extensors of the leg, the rectus supposed to be cut off: 15-2. adductor brevis; 15-3. adductor magnus; 15-4. obturator externus. Fig. 16-1. tibialis anticus; 16-2. extensor pollicis longus; 16-3. extensor digitorum commums; 16-4,9. peronaeus longns; 16-5,8. peronaeus brevis; 16-6. extensol communis brevis; 16-3,7. peronaeus tertius; 16-10. annular ligament on the back of the foot. Fig. 17-1. flexor digitorum brevis; 17-2. abductor pollicis; 17-3. flexor pollicis brevis; 17-4. abductor digiti minimi; 17-5. flexor brevis digiti minimi. Fig. 18-1. flexor pollicis brevis; 18-2. adductor pollicis; 18-3. transversalis plantaris; 18-4. tendon of the peronaeus longus. Fig. 19 interosseous muscles of the back of the foot.

Muscles of the Leg and Foot.
Click here to see the print for sale on Ebay.

Link to another page from Johann Georg Heck's book: The Order of Life: 144 images showing the progression and systematization of life, 1849

Google Books volume 3.

This is a good book for drawing the figure as it relates to the skeleton:
Anatomy For The ArtistAnatomy For The Artist

The spiral bound edition is also available: Anatomy for the Artist

How to Draw People at
How to Draw Proportions at

Tuesday, October 21, 2008

Jan de Bisschop - More Engravings of Antique Sculptures

Jan de Bisschop published this work in 1671. the name of the combined book is: Paradigmata graphices variorum artificum Voor-beelden der teken-konst van verscheyde Meesters and Signorum Veterum Icones.

The book consists of engravings after antique sculptures and painting of the masters. Its intent is an education in art history and to convey the genius of the Italian masters to student artists in Holland in the seventeenth century.

Sunday, October 19, 2008

How to Draw the Head and Body - Jehan Cousin - The Science of Portraiture Described and Demonstated

Woodcut prints from Jehan Cousin's 1676 book titled The Science of Portraiture Described and Demonstated are shown.

1. Features and proportions of the human body, both from the front and rear.

2. Shortcuts to drawing the head in three quarter view.

3. Entire Human Figure.

Jehan Cousin the younger was born in France around 1522. He was the son of the famous painter and sculptor Jean Cousin the Elder who was often compared to Albrecht Dürer. Just before his death, Jehan the elder published his noted work Livre de Perspective in 1560 in which he noted that his son would soon be publishing a companion entitled, Livre de Pourtraicture.


Selected Plates are available at:

Livre de Pourtraicture at

This is a description from the Bookseller Antiquariaat Forum in the Netherlands who has a copy for sale at

The Le Bé edition of 1676 of this beautiful and celebrated woodcut drawing book for the use of all kinds of draughtsmen and artists, like painters, sculptors, architects, gold and silver-smiths, embroiderers and cabinetmakers, with the original blocks which Le Blé had acquired from J. le Clerc. The earliest Le Clerc edition had appeared in 1595, followed by at least seven other editions. The very first edition, under the title Livre de pourtraicture is from 1560. Later editions were published with the title L'art de dessiner. The human models are beautifully drawn and cut in wood, with the shadowy parts and the perspectival projections darkly hatched.his father, Jehan Cousin Sr, the younger Cousin (ca. 1522-1594) was an important artist; his contemporaries often compared him with Dürer. He is also the author of several treatises on the theory of art of which this one on portrait painting, is the most important. The treatise is inspired by Vitruvius's work on the proportions of the human body and it served for a long time as 'The' manual for artists in this field. Probably he composed this work together and in collaboration with his father, Jehan Cousin Sr. (ca. 1490-1560), who announces the publication of his son's work in his own, very famous book Livre de perspective - also published in 1560.

According to the Dictionary of Painters and Engravers: Biographical and Critical By Michael Bryan, Robert Edmund Graves, Walter Armstrong, Published by G. Bell and sons, 1889, Aubin Olivier a die sinker and engraver of wood, as well as the director of the Mint under Henri II in 1553 was the wood engraver along with Jean le Royer of the Livre de Perspective.

The Human Head: A Correct Delineation of the Anatomy, Expressions, Features, Proportions and Positions of the Head and Face

The School of Raphael: The Student's Guide to Expression in Historical Painting

The Passions I Styles Art Poster Print by Raphael, 18x14The Passions I Styles Art Poster Print by Raphael, 18x14 at

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