Wednesday, October 22, 2008

The Human Skeleton and Muscles - Johann Georg Heck

Another engraving from the Iconographic Encyclopaedia of Science, Literature, and Art By Johann Georg Heck. The German title is Bilder Atlas zum Conversations-Lexikon Ikonographische Encyclopadie der Wissenschaften und Kunste

This one is the human skeleton from the front view, side view and back view. It was engraved by Henry Winkles. He was an architectural painter and steel engraver in the early nineteenth century.

Here are some notes on the print: The average human skeleton is comprised of 206 bones of varying shapes and sizes. Although all bones provide the body with structure and support, differently shaped bones fufill different roles. The long bones of the arms and legs, such as the humerus or the femur, raise and lower like levers. Flat bones, such as those of the skull, protect the soft tissues they enclose. (The smaller skeletons in the corners are of those of a fetus).
The second image is a study of muscles from the front an back views.

Here is the key:
Fig. 1-2. Anterior ligament, 1-3. Interarticular ligament, 2-3. Posterior ligament, 2-3. Middle costo-transverse ligament, 2-4. Internal costo-transverse ligament, 4-5, 5-3. Iliolumbar ligament, 4-3, 5-2. Posterior sacro-coccygean ligament, 4-6. anterior sacro-iliac ligament, 5-5. Posterior, 5-6. Great sacro-sciatic ligament, 7. Symphisis pubis, 8,9. Sterno-clavicular articulation, 9-2. Inter-clavicular ligament, 9-5. Rhomboid ligament, 10-1. Acromio-clavicular ligament, 10-2. Conoid, 10-3. Trapezoid, 15-1. Internal lateral ligament, 16-1,2. Interosseous ligament, 19-1. (Muscle) Temporalis, 19-2. Levator palpebrae, 19-3. Zygomaticus, 19-4. Orbicularis, 19-5. Levator anguli oris, 19-6. Masseter, 19-7. Sterno cleido-mastoid, 19-8. Subclavius, 19-9. Pectoralis minor, 19-10. Dentations of the serratus magnus, 19-11. Linea alba, 19-12. Rectus abdominus, 19-13. Transversus abdominis, 19-15. Biceps, 20-1. Temporal muscle, 20-2. Splenius, 20-3. Levator scapulae, 20-4. Rhomboideus, 20-5. Serratus posticus superior, 20-6. Supra spinatus, 20-7. Infra spinatus, 20-8. Teres minor, 20-9. Serratus posticus inferior, 20-10. Quadratus lumborum, 20-16. Triceps extensor cubiti, 20-17. Brachialis internus, 20-18. Anconaeus, 20-19. Extensor, 20-20. Flexor, 20-22. Indicator, 20-22. Abductor.

He traveled to Australia in 1852 and made a number of sketches of miner's camps. They are on the web here.

Johann Georg Heck was an author of encyclopedic reference books during the same time. See my other post: Human Anatomy for Artists and Drawing Proportions of the Human Body.

The engravings of the skull are also by Henry Winkles.

The Anatomical Atlas by Henry H. Smith, M.D. also published in the mid-eighteenth century also has some skeleton references.

Another Engraving published by Johann Georg Heck, The Muscles of the Head.

Click here to see the print for sale on Ebay.
Fig. 1, superficial muscles of the head from the left side: 1, epicranial aponeurosis; 2,3, occipito-frontalis, anterior portion; 4, posterior portion, the two connected by the epicranial aponeurosis ; 5, attollens aurem; 6, retrahens aurem ; 7, attrahens aurem ; 8, orbicularis palpebrarum; 9, compressor naris; 10, levator labii superioris alaeque nasi ; 11, levator labii superioris; 12, zygomaticus minor; 13, zygomaticus major; 14, levator anguli oris; 15, depressor anguli oris; 16, depressor labii inferioris; 17, levator menti ; 18, orbicularis oris ; 19, buccinator ; 20, masseter. Fig. 2, deep-seated muscles of the head from the left side: 1, temporal muscle; 2, corrugator supercilii; 3, superior oblique muscle of the eye; 4, levator palpebrae; 5, compressor naris ; 6, depressor naris ; 7, orbicularis ; 8, levator anguli oris ; 9, depressor labii inferioris; 10, buccinator. Fig. 3.1, platysma myoides; 2, musculus risorius santorini, 3, sterno-celido-mastoid; 4, trapezius; Fig. 4.1,2, digastric muscle; Fig. 9. 1, pectoralis major; 2, pectoralis minor; 3, subclavius; 4, serratus magnus; 5, intercostals; Fig. 10.1,2,3, obliquus internus; Fig. 11.1, muscular portion of the diaphragm; Fig. 12.1, supra spinatus; 2, infra spinatus; 3, teres minor; 4, teres major; Fig. 13.1, subscapularis, 2, biceps; Fig. 14.1, tendon of the triceps; 2, brachialis internus; Fig. 15.1, deltoid; 2, common tendon of the triceps; 3,4,5, the long, the external and the internal portions; 6, anconaeus;

Anatomy of the Muscles

Click here to see the print for sale on Ebay.
Fig. 1-1, serratus posticus superior; 1-2. serratus posticus inferior ; 1-3. orsal aponeurosis; 1-4. splenius capitis; 1-5,6. sacro-spinalis; 1-7. cervicalis ascendens ; 1-8. trachelo-mastoid ; 1-9. semi-spinalis dorsi et colli ; 1-10. complexus; 1-11. spinalis dorsi et colli. 2-1. splenius capitis; 2-2. splenius colli; 2-3,5. complexus; 2-4., trachelo mastoid. 3-1. complexus; 3-2. trachelo-mastoid; 3-3. minor, 3-4. major rectus capitis posticus; 3-5. obliquus capitis, inferior and superior. Fig. 4-1. pronator teres; 4-2. flexor carpi radialis; 4-3. palmaris longus; 4-4. flexor carpi ulnaris; 4-5. supinator longus; 4-6. flexor digitorum communis. Fig. 5-1. flexor digitorum communis sublimis; 5-2. slit for the passage of the flexor profundus; 5-3. supinator longus: 5-4. lower part of the brachialis internus; 5-5. tendon of the biceps; 5-6. palmar ligament. Fig. 6-1. flexor communis digitorum profundus; 6-2,3. flexor pollicis longus; 6-4. pronator quadratus; 6-5,6. supinator longus et brevis. Fig. 7-1. extensor digitorum communis; 7-2. extensor digiti minimi; 7-3. extensor carpi ulnaris; 7-4. anconoeus; 7-5. extensor carpi radialis longus et brevis; 7-6. annular ligament. Fig. 8-1. supinator brevis; 8-2. anconoeus reflected; 8-3. abductor longus pollicis ; 8-4. extensor pollicis brevis ; 8-5. extensor pollicis longus; 8-6. extensor indicis. Fig. 9-1. tendon of the extensor pollicis longus; 9-2. tendon of the palmaris longus; 9-3. tendon of the flexor carpi ulnaris; 9-4. abductor pollicis brevis; 9-5. opponens pollicis; 9-6. flexor pollicis brevis ; 9-7. abductor pollicis; 9-8. palmaris brevis; 9-9. abductor digiti minimi; 9-10. flexor brevis digiti minimi ; 9-11. opponens digiti minimi; 9-12. internal interosseous muscle.

Fig. 10-1,2,3. external interosseons muscles. 11-1. glutaeus maximus; 11-2. glutaeus meclius. Fig. 12-1. glutaeus medius; 12-2. pyriformis; 12-3. tendon of the obturator internus; 12-4. quadratus femoris; 12-5. section of the tendon of the glutaeus maximus. Fig. 13-1. section of the pyriformis; 13-2. glutaeus minimus; 13-3. obturator mternus; 13-4. quadratus femoris; 13-5. adductor femoris; 13-6. biceps flexor cruris; 13-7. semi-tendinosus; 13-8. semi-membranosus. Fig. 14-1. psoas magnus, 14-2. iliacus internus (both in section); 14-3. sartorius; 14-4. tensor vaginae femoris; 14-5. rectus ; 14-6. vastus extern us ; 14-7. pectinaeus ; 14-8. adductor longus; 14-9. gracilis. Fig. 15-1. the four extensors of the leg, the rectus supposed to be cut off: 15-2. adductor brevis; 15-3. adductor magnus; 15-4. obturator externus. Fig. 16-1. tibialis anticus; 16-2. extensor pollicis longus; 16-3. extensor digitorum commums; 16-4,9. peronaeus longns; 16-5,8. peronaeus brevis; 16-6. extensol communis brevis; 16-3,7. peronaeus tertius; 16-10. annular ligament on the back of the foot. Fig. 17-1. flexor digitorum brevis; 17-2. abductor pollicis; 17-3. flexor pollicis brevis; 17-4. abductor digiti minimi; 17-5. flexor brevis digiti minimi. Fig. 18-1. flexor pollicis brevis; 18-2. adductor pollicis; 18-3. transversalis plantaris; 18-4. tendon of the peronaeus longus. Fig. 19 interosseous muscles of the back of the foot.

Muscles of the Leg and Foot.
Click here to see the print for sale on Ebay.

Link to another page from Johann Georg Heck's book: The Order of Life: 144 images showing the progression and systematization of life, 1849

Google Books volume 3.

This is a good book for drawing the figure as it relates to the skeleton:
Anatomy For The ArtistAnatomy For The Artist

The spiral bound edition is also available: Anatomy for the Artist

How to Draw People at
How to Draw Proportions at


  1. Thanks for the great post! my daughter loves biology and anatomy so much. She will surely love this.:)

  2. Thank you for this post ! I just discovered that this engraving of human skeleton appears in Back to the future 3, in Doc Brown's workshop :)